A three-dimensional stereotactic radiosurgery plan was created targeting the glossopharyngeal
nerve at the glossopharyngeal
meatus of the jugular foramen with a single shot with the 4 mm collimator (Figure).
2) Therapeutic injections of local anesthetic and steroids at the attachment of the stylohyoid ligament have proved useful, although complications may include local hematoma and injury to the internal jugular, carotid artery, and glossopharyngeal
Jugular foramen schwannomas are benign and slowly growing neoplasms that usually originate in the glossopharyngeal
or vagus nerve.
Numerous parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers join branches of the trigeminal nerve through interconnections with the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), facial (VII), and glossopharyngeal
(IX) nerves (Netter, 1995).
The gag reflex test measures the activity of the glossopharyngeal
nerve (cranial nerve IX) rather than the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), which innervates the hypopharynx and larynx.
Stimulation of the glossopharyngeal
and vagal nerves via the hypopharynx and larynx could result in the type of symptoms described by patients and the observer.
Phrenic, vagus, glossopharyngeal
and cervical sympathetic chain nerve involvement have also been reported, although these are associated more with a deep cervical plexus block.
11) The larynx in birds is innervated by the glossopharyngeal
Outcome after microvascular decompression for typical trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, tinnitus, disabling positional vertigo, and glossopharyngeal
facial trochlear optic phrenic axon dendrite occipital hypoglossal frontal mandibular nasociliary ophthalmic tibial laryngeal hillock bouton median splanchnic hypogastric femoral genitofemoral plexus pudendal myelin trigeminal abducens oculomotor vagus glossopharyngeal
vestibulocochlear accessory auricular maxillary lacrimal supraorbital ethmoidal peroneal endoneurium synapse ganglion antebrachial acetylcholine ramus iliohypogastric subcostal obturator ilioinguinal oligodendrocyte nerve astrocyte
recently performed a microvascular decompression, successfully treating a patient with glossopharyngeal
and hypoglossal nerves were minimally affected.
The carotids send impulses by the glossopharyngeal
(IX) nerve, and the aortic by the vagus (X) nerve.
Yomo, Shoji, Yasser Arkha, Anne Donnet and Jean Regis (2009) "Gamma Knife surgery for glossopharyngeal
The vagal, hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal
, and sympathetic are the most commonly involved nerves.