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Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: implications for salinization of surface waters.
From the three gravid (with young mussels) female golden riffleshell collected in Virginia in March, the Kentucky Center for Mollusk Conservation has successfully used rabbit serum to rear about 12,000 glochidia to the juvenile stage.
Culture of glochidia of the freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis muersiana (Lea, 1856) in artificial media.
Although slower growth rates in females may simply be due to higher costs of producing and brooding glochidia, smaller females might also be more easily consumed by molluscivorous Freshwater Drum, possibly suggesting an unusual "suicidal" glochidial dispersal strategy (Haag, 2012).
Some mussels solve both problems by one method: broadcast dispersal of thousands of glochidia into the water column.
Each species of glochidia has differing levels of host specificity that dictate the fish species it may utilize as a host (Reuling, 1919; Fustish and Millemann, 1978; Meyers et al.
Each female will produce around three million glochidia each year but even in ideal conditions only 0.
The glochidia attach better to specific species of fish.
The glochidia will float in the water column, but will perish or be consumed in a very short time unless they encounter a fish.
The movement of fish bearing glochidia is the main mechanism of unionid dispersal.
These features present a formidable barrier against predispersal seed predators: a moderately tough outer envelope covering a thick layer of dense, sharp, detaching trichomes that resemble cactus glochidia.
Azolla (or Euazolla) is characterized by the possession of papillae only on the leaves and some branches, the presence of three megaspore floats, and the presence of well-developed, septate glochidia with terminal anchor-like structures.
The glochidia leave the gills through the suprabranchial cavity and exhalant siphon and become attached to the fins and other surfaces of fish.
An impact of salinity on the reproduction of freshwater unionids was also shown through a decrease in glochidia viability in the freshwater mussel Lampsilis fasciola (Gillis 2011).
Glochidia ydi'r enw ar y larfau bach yma ac maen nhw'n ddigon tebyg i gregyn gleision bychan.
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