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Annually, up to 3,500 of the fish infested with Higgins eye glochidia have been released to face the rigors of the wild in the Wisconsin, Iowa, and Wapsipincon rivers, all tributaries of the Mississippi.
By April, 80% of the mussels were exposed in accordance with the peak time of glochidia release.
Copepod parasites of fresh-water fishes and their economic relations to mussel glochidia.
Historic numbers of many species and populations of freshwater mussels native to the United States have declined, and continue to decline, because of causes that either directly affect the mussels or impact hosts for transformation of glochidia (Lydeard et al.
Before the female mussels release their glochidia in the lab, the appropriate fishes are collected from various streams to provide hosts for the parasitic larvae.
The gills of seven percent of the hosts were infected with small numbers of glochidia clam larvae.
Many mussel species depend on specific species of fish to serve as hosts for mussel larvae, or glochidia.
Once the glochidia are mature, the female releases them into the water, where they must attach and encyst on the gills, fins or epidermis of a suitable host fish for metamorphosis to the juvenile stage.
The glochidia (mussel larvae) of the Higgins Eye attach to the gills of two specific fish species for one to four weeks as their shells begin to form.
Upon release from the female mussel, the glochidia must attach to a suitable host species within a few hours or days, depending on the mussel species, or they will die.
However, Kwon and Park (1985) stated that after the glochidia had been released, the secondary water tube was continuously present in Lanceolaria acrorhyncha.
Glochidia may attach to several different species of fish but die if they are not attached to the host species.
Several aspects having to do with reproduction are discussed, where information is available, including spawning patterns, a description of glochidia, and species of fish that serve as hosts for various kinds of unionid glochidia.
This find is of special interest because the gravidity period (the brooding period for glochidia or mussel larvae) previously was unknown, but was suspected to occur in spring or early summer rather than in late summer or early fall.
Glochidia ydi'r enw ar y larfau bach yma ac maen nhw'n ddigon tebyg i gregyn gleision bychan.
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