It can be supposed that glanders only re-emerged in the form of local epidemics when glanderous equids were introduced in native populations.
This assumption is supported by the finding that a glanders outbreak happened in a Lahore Polo Club (2005) after the introduction of two glanderous horses brought from a Sargodha district farm to participate in competitions (Wahid,2011).
Another explanation for the absence of glanderous animals in our investigation is that most diseased animals may succumb to glanders during the stressful summer season.
In serodiagnosis, animals tested false-positives and false-negatives should be retested with a highly sensitive and specific test like immunoblot to avoid the loss of healthy animals and introduction of glanderous animals in healthy populations, respectively.
We obtained clinical samples and background information from 15 glanderous
equids in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007 (Table; online Appendix Table, available from www.