We have demonstrated that BaP exposure during fetal development causes severe somatic and germ cell consequences in F1 animals and that tissues originating from all three germ layers
, as well as the germ cells themselves, are highly mutagenized in adult offspring.
Mouse ES cells derived from embryos before implantation can differentiate into all three germ layers
and germ cells.
The results showed that our cell lines expressed pluripotent markers, had normal karyotypes, and retained the potential to differentiate into the three germ layers
under in vitro conditions.
rosaceus is associated with changes in cell lineage and germ layer
allocation, we studied the cell lineage of C.
the mesodermal germ layer
surrounding the roots of the teeth) and in endosteal fibrous tissue.
RAFE, A shift in germ layer
allocation is correlated with large egg size and facultative planktotrophy in the echinoid Clypeaster rosaceus, 192
The low variability in CpG methylation among the three germ layer
tissues relative to high variability between individual animals indicates that the establishment of epigenotype at the [A.
Previously, it was believed that germ layer
boundaries could not be crossed.
A germ layer
is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
Objective: Mesoderm, the embryonic germ layer
between ectoderm and endoderm, gives rise to major organs within the circulatory and excretory systems and to stabilizing tissues (muscles, bones, connective tissue).
Whether this third germ layer
evolved once or developed convergently in a number of ancestral diploblastic forms remains to be demonstrated.
The designation of teratoma may be appropriate even for a lesion with tissues derived from a single embryonic germ layer
, if the tumor shows histologically divergent differentiation.
The researchers stopped the cells from differentiating further, but each germ layer
was theoretically capable of giving rise to specific tissues and organs.
We have devised guidance protocols for mouse and human embryonic and reprogrammed stem cells toward inner ear cell types that make use of principles of early germ layer
formation and otic induction.
ES cells have distinct characteristics such as self-renewal and pluripotency, differentiating into all three germ layer
and germ cell lineages (Kondoh et al.