Certain institutions are responsible for each certain engineering infrastructure which regulates topographic maps composed by geodesists
Cline is a geodesist
with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in Silver Spring, Maryland.
The first GPS-based measurements, which avoid the refraction errors that plague theodolite-based surveys, were taken by Italian geodesists
The Polish CORS network will provide critical GPS data for geodetic applications to regional users such as geodesists
and civil engineers.
Geography was obviously associated with the construction of different kinds of maps, and when Didier Robert de Vaugondy published his influential Essai sur l'Histoire de la Geographie in 1755 he included mathematical cartographers, geodesists
, and descriptive geographers under the heading of "geographie.
According to Jan Nijenhuis, an engineer at TNO, geodesists
at the German Institut fur Angewandte Geodasie deploy the telescope at multiple sites around the world to measure fault line shifts and the motion of the continental plates.
get around that problem by putting antennas on top of buried concrete pillars, but Blewitt rejected this approach because concrete can deform and shrink over the years.
have been measuring the size and shape of the earth ever since, but no two have come up with exactly the same results.
With the advance of observation precision, the causes of Earth orientation changes are progressively being identified by geodesists
This could result from the GPS antennas locus (mostly roofs of high buildings) as the Polish national GNSS network was designed rather for real-time services for geodesists
, than for studies of local or regional kinematics.
of Latvia University of Agriculture, Faculty of Rural Engineering, as a static 4 hour measurements.
, Cartographers and Geographers", North-Holland Publishing Company, 175 pp.
On land, the datum used by geodesists
, surveyors, and engineers, is the Geodetic Survey of Canada Datum (GSCD, or GD).
In Africa the equator bisected unexplored jungle, while in the Amazon and Papua New Guinea geodesists
faced similarly difficult terrain.
In the last few years, geodesists
, using a technique called Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), have been able to detect these motions directly by comparing the arrival times of quasar radio signals on opposite sides of plate boundaries (SN: 12/21 & 29/85, p.