Together guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T) and cytosine (C) make up the letters of the genetic code
The genetic code
is the Rosetta stone that translates the DNA sequence into amino acids that make proteins.
In this project, using metagenomics and single-cell genomics to explore uncultured microbes, we really had the opportunity to see how the genetic code
operates in the wild.
Since the genetic code
was deciphered in the 1960s, scientists have assumed that it was used exclusively to write information about proteins.
Gorillas are the last of the living great apes to have their genetic codes
mapped, allowing scientists to compare the genomes of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans.
The study looked at heart disease risk conferred by several single-letter changes in the genetic code
, or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), on 9p21.
The life form -- a living bacterial cell -- has been created by writing a new genetic code
and transferring this into a bacterium to replace its natural code.
The team input the genetic code
for 3,799 known artificial plasmids into the software, which compared the sequences and found hundreds of matching stretches, each with about 20 "letters" of genetic code
Laboratory research has already shown that the natural variations in the genetic code
of mitochondria is associated with the risk of developing the disease but it is not known which changes are responsible for this altered risk.
The grammar of genes; how the genetic code
resembles the linguistic code.
Personal genetic code
profiles could soon be a reality thanks to technology that has slashed the cost of DNA sequencing.
All the trillions of co-ordinated physical-chemical interactions which occur throughout the living human body every second, whether in a zygote or in an adult whose body contains 50 to 100 trillion cells, have their ultimate source of integration, unity, and co-ordination in the genetic code
of the original single-cell zygote.
Scientists hope cracking the genetic code
will lead to a diagnostic tool and, eventually, to a selective treatment.
pigs whose genetic code
is modified to produce organs acceptable for human transplantation.
For humankind will indeed have to take ethical responsibility for tinkering with the genetic code
that may allow the human species to re-create itself, extend the frontiers of longevity, and cure innumerable diseases.