The genetic code
is three billion letters long, but Dr Sibson's system means it can be looked at like the index of a book and the positions within the code can be manipulated.
If the genetic codes
spelled out in the base pairs don't match closely enough between two animals that may look like twins, scientists conclude they've found a new or distinct species.
In all existing life forms, the four 'letters' of the genetic code
, called nucleotides, are read in triplets, so that every three nucleotides encode a single amino acid.
SBH technology exploits the chemical structure of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the fundamental molecule of the genetic code
University of Washington scientists have succeeded in reading the entire genetic code
in one part of the body's disease-fighting arsenal, opening the door to new research on how the body's immune system works.
Current technology can spell out a person's genome, or full genetic code
, at a cost in excess of $10 million, according to Geoff Spencer of the National Human Genome Institute in Bethesda, Md.
I don't know - it's in the genetic code
, I guess,'' she says.
By targeting regions of the viral genetic code
that are common to all influenza A subtypes, we expect that our NEUGENE drug against avian flu will also be effective against the far more common influenza A virus H1N1, which kills an average of 35,000 Americans every year.
As the Human Genome Project continues to unravel the genetic code
that determines each person's individual makeup - everything from eye color to diseases, gene therapies to fix what's wrong will become more commonplace.
The Directorate for Biological Sciences at the National Science Foundation (NSF) announced that the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) -- along with collaborating institutions George Mason University, University of Colorado, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Arizona State, and Carnegie Institution of Washington -- has been awarded a five-year Frontiers in Integrative Biological Research (FIBR) grant for their joint project, "The Emergence of Life: from Geochemistry to the Genetic Code
Pruitt's team posits in the March 2 Nature that the plants may carry some of their grandparents' and earlier generations' unflawed genetic code
in a nucleic acid other than DNA, such as RNA.
NEUGENE compounds are synthetic compounds that mirror a critical portion of a disease-causing organism's genetic code
, which bind to specific portions of the target genetic sequence.
The genetic code
is represented by sequences of four types of nucleotides, designated by the letters A, T, G, and C.
Because HCV and other single-stranded RNA viruses have relatively simple genetic structures, they are attractive targets for AVI's NEUGENE antisense, which is designed to target conserved portions of the viral genetic code
that are not likely to mutate over time.
Unnatural origins Bacteria and yeast cells were genetically engineered to incorporate an unnatural amino acid into their proteins, an advance that may lead to new drugs and shed light on the origin of the genetic code
(163: 53; 164: 102).