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  • noun

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small asexual reproductive structure in e

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In Huperzia, gemmae are either produced throughout the year (e.
Cultivation techniques are divided into nine chronologic sections for clarity: I) Plant Materials: Selection of Appropriate Propagules, II) Preparation of Cuttings and Root Initiation, III) Greenhouse, Laboratory, and Growth Chamber Conditions, IV) Medium, V) Pot assembly, VI) Planting and Establishment, VII) Greenhouse Acclimation and Specimen Culture, VIII) Propagation and Exceeding Colony Climax Stage, and IX) Huperzia Gemmae Propagation.
Our goals in this paper are to survey the morphology of gemmae of all North American species and to demonstrate their utility for identification.
Firmoss gemmae are vegetative reproductive structures distributed along or near the summit of the annual shoot growth increments.
This plant lacked normal gemmae but possessed short (7-13 mm long) shoot-like structures (hereafter, "short shoots") along the main stems (Fig.
The authors found that in the gemmiferous perennial pygmy Drosera species, 60% of total N and 38% of P was on average allocated to gemmae in rosette form species and only 20% N and 23% P in micro-stilt form species.
In addition, gametophytes growing on soil frequently produce archegonia, whereas those growing on rock have high gemmae production (Farrar, 1978).
Conspecific clumped distribution suggests that gemmae and spores falling close to the parent plant dominate reproduction and that longer distance dispersal and establishment are less important.
Besides the spores and shoot culture, the specific vegetative propagules, which are called gemmae or bulbils, play an important role in dispersal and regeneration of Huperzia (Ollgaard, 1987; Reutter, 1987; Gola, 2008).
The propagules of fern fronds with gemmae are also frequently used as charms (Fig.
Ali three can bear inconspicuous asexual reproductive gemmae on their subterranean stems (Johnson-Groh et al.
Due to their unique gemmae production (asexual propagules), we were able to identify the gametophytes of this family (Farrar, 1974).
Ferns occupy a specialized habitat as epiphytes and, as such, epiphytic ferns have evolved various gametophytic generation adapations like antheridiogen systems, production of gemmae, indefinite growth of prothalli, etc.
The branching filamentous proliferations on old prothalli of Cyatheaeae in the present study bear antheridia, the characteristics of which are like the gemmae investigated by Farrar and Dassler (Farrar, 1967; Dassler and Farrar, 1997; Dassler and Farrar, 2001).
The leaves frequently formed gemmae on sinuses of ultimate segments and outlines of segments consequently appeared somewhat dentate.