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We've developed a lesson to investigate basic principles of ecology, more specifically niche partitioning, while using a jigsaw activity that explores galling insects' interactions with goldenrods.
We offer an introduction to principles of ecology, plant insect interactions, and provide a classroom activity that highlights niche partitioning by galling insects to help provide secondary science educators with a way to share and explore these interactions with their students.
The galling habit has evolved several times, and over 13000 species of gallers have been described[22].
Galling insects are usually not considered as pests.
Even without severe conditions, lack of lubrication leads to galling of the pins, perhaps not only destroying the pin, but also damaging the die.
One way to confirm that pins are getting the proper lubrication is to look for rust or galling following the application of lubricant.
Galling by the mite reduced aboveground biomass by 49% and belowground biomass by 35% compared to controls during pre-release testing in the native range (Goolsby et al.
Low levels of galling, fewer than 140 galls per site, were observed at 4 of these release sites in the months following releases, but after 14 mo, mite populations persisted at only 2 sites (Boughton & Pemberton 2011; Table 1).
Among these insects, there are four types of galling insects (Hymenoptera) found on the C.
However the eurytomid, Eurytoma gigantea Walsh, which attacks the stem galling tephritid fly, Eurosta solidaginis Fitch, another galler of the same 2 goldenrod species has not diverged in parallel with its phytophagous host (Cronin & Abrahamson 2001).
uzeli, as recorded for its congener, Androthrips flavipes, which feeds on other galling species (Varadarasan & Ananthakrishnan 1982).
frutescens gall parasitism rates were higher and galling rates lower in the presence of neighboring Borrichia, but the converse effect was not observed (Stiling et al.
A leaflet galling psyllid Calophya terebinthifolii Burckhardt & Basset (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) may be a potential biocontrol agent for Brazilian peppertree due to its narrow host specificity (Burckhardt & Basset 2000).
If parasitoids that attack Asphondylia are recruited from other gallmakers in the local community, then there may be a stable species pool of parasitoids in scrub habitats that can use galling larvae on P.
Androthrips flavipes develops faster than the galling thrips, which enables the predator to complete its life cycle more quickly than the prey (Varadarasan & Ananthakrishnan 1982).