Outbreaks in poultry typically caused high mortality rates among gallinaceous birds
, especially layer, broiler, and native chickens.
Low occurrence of second broods has been reported for other species of gallinaceous birds
in North America: Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; Sandercock et al.
Populations of many gallinaceous birds
, including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), show extreme variation in densities regionally and from year-to-year (Speake & Haugen 1960; Schemnitz 1961; 1964; Campbell 1968; Campbell et al.
However, the Mongolia/2005 strain was equally or more lethal for the 4 species of swans in this study as other HPAI virus (H5N1) strains have been in a variety of age-matched or younger wild avian species, including gallinaceous birds
, waterfowl, and gulls (19,20).
1997), but documented cases of gallinaceous birds
adopting offspring are rare (Martin 1989, Mills and Rumble 1991).
22-26) Avian leukosis virus causes B-cell lymphomas mainly in gallinaceous poultry, and reticuloendotheliosis virus has been associated with either B- or T-cell lymphomas in gallinaceous birds
, geese, and a European starling (Sturnus vulgaris).
TBEV has been isolated, or serologically indicated, from several bird species, especially anatids and gallinaceous birds
, and most often from Eastern Europe or Russia (9).
Pages 9-36 in Life histories of North American gallinaceous birds
Cutaneous mast cell tumors have previously been documented in owls (30,31) and gallinaceous birds
Therefore, the limited attractiveness of gallinaceous birds
to larval Ixodes ticks may render them less important than certain passerine birds as natural reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes.
24,25) However, clinical disease in gallinaceous birds
has been described.
1,11-13) To our knowledge, ovarian hemangiosarcomas have not yet been reported in gallinaceous birds
19,20) Epidemic outbreaks of pox in wild passerine birds and gallinaceous birds
are not uncommon and have also been reported in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), (21) Galapagos finches, (22) and endemic birds in the Canary Islands.