Furthermore, the distinction between IDA and anemia of chronic disease (ACD) has become less complicated, as has the characterization of functional iron deficiency
(FID) in cases of multimorbidity in the elderly or in chronic or persisting inflammatory diseases (5-14).
Further, patients treated with FG-4592 showed no functional iron deficiency
, even without the administration of intravenous iron.
Diagnosis of iron deficiency (ID) or functional iron deficiency
(FID) is particularly challenging in patients with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions because most biochemical markers for iron metabolism are affected by the acute-phase response (APR) (1).
It has potential to overcome functional iron deficiency
, a hallmark of kidney failure, and thereby overcome resistance to EPOGEN action.
4%), absolute or functional iron deficiency
(defined as ferritin <30 mcg/mL and TSAT<20%) (43%); and thrombotic events of various types (12%).
This transient discrepancy between marrow iron availability and requirements (defined as functional iron deficiency
or iron-restricted erythropoiesis) needs to be promptly identified: changes in r-HuEPO dose or use of intravenous iron can restore an optimal response to r-HuEPO.
Microcytosis and hypochromia are indicative of functional iron deficiency
, which is symptomatic of ACD in multiple clinical settings.