On the basis of type, this market has been segmented into fumigants
, carbamates, organophosphates, and bio-nematicides.
However, many countries in Europe have disallowed the use of fumigant
products, and the state of California is likely to restrict their use even more over the next few years.
This paper includes our research data for fumigant
concentration in the air under the tarps (above soil surface), emission flux during tarp covering and after tarp cutting, cumulative fumigant
gas concentration in the soil profile, and residual fumigants
In large timber fumigants
stop rot that good design could have prevented.
As part of that 5-year effort, ARS researchers in Florida and California are helping to minimize release of the alternative fumigants
into the atmosphere with studies focused on fumigant
emission rates and the effectiveness of tarps used as barriers to cover fumigated soil.
No methyl bromide or any other soil fumigant
was used in the study, since they have become too costly for many small growers and nonchemical and nonchemical alternatives are being sought.
We're trying to help the EPA and USDA talk with sustainable agriculture people who are farming without fumigants
," she says.
Test materials in acetone applied to Whatman filter papers (7 cm diameter) in a Petri dish (8 cm) acted as sources of fumigants
Hartwell Allen, an ARS soil scientist showed that this virtually impermeable film (VIF) can retain soil fumigants
at higher concentrations for longer periods than standard high-density polyethylene film currently used in vegetable and strawberry production.
He presented his case to the EPA's Crisis Exemption program, noting that his clean-up project was unique and that there were no registered fumigants
designed to kill anthrax, so he needed to use the best agent at his disposal.
With the phasing-out of methyl bromide, the most common and effective soil fumigant
, and the increasing tolerance of soil-borne pests to other synthetic soil fumigants
, mustard plants may find a place in the vegetable crop rotation.
In a statement to the UN Commission on Human Rights, advocates for Colombians exposed to the fumigants
said the spraying caused "gastrointestinal disorders (e.
However, historical use of fumigants
, herbicides and pesticides has impacted water resources.
Thermal treatment, which was said to be an effective but slow acting pest eradication, ozone generators, which can 'depest' a pallet in an hour or sterilize it in a 24 hours, were offered as an alternative to existing fumigants
Field tests are just getting under way to compare their crop-protection value against that offered by traditional rapes and commercial soil fumigants