japonica bed was faster than in the algal turfs in Akita Prefecture; almost equal to that in beds of the fucoids Coccophora langdorfii, Sargassum piluliferum, and S.
Experiments with artificial reefs show four seral stages: colonization by small annuals and crustaceous algae at the pioneer stage, crustose algae at the early stage, small perennials at the late stage, and Eisenia bicyclis and fucoid beds at the climax stage (Taniguchi 1996, Nakabayashi & Taniguchi 2003).
Earlier investigations show that the effect of an oil spill on fucoids is controversial and highly site specific (Crapp, 1971; Thomas, 1977; Notini, 1978; Highsmith et al.
There were many oiled fucoids washed ashore in eastern Keibu Bay whereas algal wrack was missing in other parts of the shore.
By grazing ephemeral filamentous algae, periwinkles facilitate colonization of larger fleshy macroalgae, such as fucoids
and Chondrus crispus (Lubchenco 1980, Lubchenco 1983, Scheibling et al.
competition from other fucoids
(Wikstrom, 2004); the restricted