Herbaceous layers of the forest along the Bosque River were similar to those reported for bottomland forests of north-central Oklahoma (Rice, 1965) where wingstem (Verbesina alternifolia), instead of frostweed and Virginia wildrye (Elymus virginicus) instead of Canada wildrye, was reported.
Dominant forbs, based on a combination of percentage of hits and biomass at peak standing crop, varied locally among giant ragweed, pigeonberry, and frostweed.
Frostweed usually has been viewed as a species typical of middle stages of succession (Tyrl et al.
San Antonio area residents can lure Monarchs to their yards relatively easily by planting milkweed, also known as "butterfly bush," and other butterfly-friendly plants like cut-leaf daisy, pentas, frostweed
, lantana and others.
prickly pear, frostweed
(Verbesina virginica), Lindheimer senna (Cassia lindheimeriana), knotted hedgeparsley (Torilis nodosa), prairie bluet (Heydotis nigricans), Drummond skullcap (Scutellaria drumondii), white sweetclover (Melilotus albus), oneseed croton (Croton monanthogynus), Indianmallow (Abutilon incanum), common sorrel (Rumex acetosella), sensitivebriar (Schrankia roemeriana), pepperweed (Lepidium virginicum), and Texas bluebonnet (Lupinus texensis).