For a discussion of these themes in another context, see Clawson, "Early Modern Fraternalism
and the Patriarchal Family;" on sprawling translocal artisan networks, see Humphrey Southall, "The Tramping Artisan Revisits: Labour Mobility and Economic Distress in Early Victorian England," Economic History Review 44 (1991): 272-296.
This is important because a significant strand in Taillon's explanation of the culture and its institutional expression in the brotherhoods depends on the exceptionalism of the Civil War experience, a factor which is deployed to make sense not only of racism and political attitudes, but of fraternalism
, mutual insurance, and manliness as well.
It was mainly the affiliated orders that spread, through their branches, the idea of fraternalism
to the United States, where it reached its apex in the 1920s, when roughly every third adult American male belonged to a fraternal society (Beito 2000, 2).
Zappoli proposed structural changes to the city designed to ease the lot of the lower classes, but he also urged the popolani to seek fraternalism
with the rich rather than revenge against them and denounced their house-to-house requisitions as criminal activity.
Perhaps anticipating how Protestant portrayals of Catholic faith as incompatible with American patriotism might be extended to Catholic fraternalism
, Knights countered that Catholic fraternalism
actually contributed to patriotic loyalty.
Though there is little evidence of regional consciousness in Hood's behavior and writings nor of tensions between the North Carolina lodges and their northern elders, further studies of southern fraternalism
may reveal a regional distinctiveness and perhaps, as with the churches, disputes over resources and relative power within institutional structures that straddled the regions.
Carnes, Secret Ritual and Manhood in Victorian America (New Haven CT: Yale University Press, 1989), Mary Ann Clawson, Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender and Fraternalism
(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989), and David Hackett, "Gender and Religion in American Culture, 1870-1930," Religion and American Culture, Vol.
Yet the outdoorsy fraternalism
of this all-American bard is evoked at the final blackout, when the play offers a Whitman-esque vision of nude bathers united in a baptismal brotherhood.
Best noted: "Through conservative management, active fraternalism
, and high-quality insurance products, the fraternal society has grown to a multi-billion dollar international insurance organization.
177) But such hints of small success stories prove unconvincing, coming without detail or analysis, at the end of a whole book explaining how the union's long history of fraternalism
deterred it from welcoming women.
Its mission is accomplished in an atmosphere of respect, integrity and fraternalism
While the financial and social benefits of fraternalism
were of some utility, they were inadequate long-term solutions for families with a disabled breadwinner.
The railroad brotherhoods, like a host of contemporary labor organizations, belonged to a tradition of fraternalism
that infused much of the North American labor movement.
See Mary Ann Clawson, Constructing Brotherhood: Class, Gender and Fraternalism
(Princeton 1989); Mark Carnes, Secret Ritual and Manhood in Victorian America (New Haven and London 1989); Emery and Emery, A Young Man's Benefit.
Along the way, he interprets Jacobinism as the same sort of vast transatlantic conspiracy that Francois Furet sniffed out, contrives an extended analogy between Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and Karl Marx's avenging proletariat, endorses interpretations of imperialism as rape and prostitution on a grand scale, portrays fraternalism
and the tavern as nocturnal refuges of marginal men, and deploys his expertise in North American labour history to produce a dramatic set piece on the Knights of Labor and the Haymarket massacre.