Phytoliths analysis for the discrimination of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) and Common Millet (Panicum miliaceum).
Phytolith analysis for differentiating between Foxtail Millet (Setaria ilalica) and Green Foxtail (Setaria viridis).
Growers would plant foxtail millet as a forage for livestock.
One foxtail millet variety, Golden German, provides up to 6,100 pounds of dry matter per acre.
For rice, foxtail millet and vetch these were calculated on the basis of presence of caryopsis or cotyledon.
Remains of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) were also recovered (Figure 4).
2007), and millet agriculture in eastern Tibet can be traced back to 2500 BC, but foxtail millet
in southern China is so far only reported from Gantuoyan in western Guangxi (ATGZ & Napo Museum 2003), and from Nanguanlidong and Youxianfang in southern Taiwan (Tsang et al.
Alongside records of domesticated chicken and pig (Zhou 1981; Yuan & Flad 2002), Cishan has yielded unusual botanical evidence, in the form of loose grey sediments identified at the time as decayed foxtail millet
(CPAMCH & HWPTCRTATHP 1977; CPAMHP & HRPS 1981; Tong 1984).
The oldest examples are foxtail millet
and broomcorn millet from Tongsamdong (for location see Figure 1), in a stratified sequence with a series of radiocarbon dates spanning the period from about 4800 to 1700 cal.
Remains of cultivated foxtail millet
were recovered from 80 of these pits.
During the first half of the 2nd millennium, subsistence cultivation on Okinawa was based on a combination of dry-field wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), foxtail millet
(Setaria italica), broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) and irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) (Sasaki 1973; Asato 1990).
In fact, three millets, finger millet (Eleusine coracana), little millet (Panicum sumatrense) and foxtail millet
(Setaria italica), make up the majority of the food grains representing both the Harappan and Late Harappan Periods.
Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is an annual grass widely distributed over the Old World, including China, where evidence of the earliest foxtail millet
domestication to date has been discovered in the Cishan assemblage, Hebei province, dated to approximately 7900-7500 BP (Institute of Archaeology CASS 1991).
Rice [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED], foxtail millet
and broomcorn millet total 15 grains (TABLE 2).
There is clear evidence for food production in the form of grains of rice of the japonica variety, sorghum and foxtail millet
and barley and, according to North Korean reports, pigs, dogs and cattle had been domesticated.