As a legal concept, jurisdiction had been part of the English common law tradition since the Middle Ages; however, at common law, jurisdiction was a tangled web of "charter, prerogative, personal privilege, corporate liberty, ancient custom, and the fortuities
of rules of pleading, venue, and process.
The spreads, it argued, resulted from the fortuities
of the stock market and had nothing to do with increased research spending.
However, insurance policies on cargo are intended to cover fortuities
, accidents and force majeure, in other words, matters over which the insured has no control.
T]he child's power to direct his counsel and thereby make his own views and preferences known to the judge and jury should not turn on fortuities
such as whether the state has decided to proceed by way of a delinquency proceeding rather than .
Yet without limiting the police power to manipulate the fortuities
of offending, undercover operations represent a politically dangerous amount of power.
Whatever the significance of fortuities
in historical development for explaining contemporary differences between England and Germany, the presence of these differences makes plain that U.