Descriptive and cladistic analysis of ceratopsian dinosaur forelimb
These extinct animals had exceptionally strong forelimbs
that probably held a victim still while razorlike teeth ripped out its throat, a new study shows.
, as well as its colorful crest, are remarkably similar to features seen on some modern birds, he notes.
Despite careful nursing and management, he became unable to strengthen his forelimb
and to lock his knee, so he could neither be ridden nor turned out without significant lameness.
About two dozen of the shafted feathers adorn each forelimb
and lower leg, the researchers report.
While at the Marquesa's Childwick Bury Stud in Hertfordshire, the colt was found to be a `weaver', a horse who swings its head and neck so that its weight rests alternately upon each forelimb
To test the hypothesis, they paired the vagus nerve stimulation with movements of the forelimb
in two groups of rats.
But the human version dramatically boosted the activity of genes in the mouse's primordial thumb, forelimb
, hind limb and toe, the researchers found.
finneyi's legs are relatively longer than those of any known bats, and the ratio of its forelimb
length to its hindlimb length approaches that of nonflying arboreal mammals such as sloths and lemurs.
Thick, robust bones are an indicator of forelimb
strength,' she said.
Although he and his colleagues found only six such protuberances, their spacing on the bone suggests that up to 14 large feathers--some not attached to quill knobs--could have adorned each forelimb
sediba include an almost complete right hand in association with the right forelimb
bones, in addition to several bones from the left hand.
Based on the spacing of knobs, however, the scientists believe that the animal could have had as many as 14 large feathers on each forelimb
At the same time, her right forelimb
repeatedly pulled soil from behind (from both beside and beneath her) in a forward direction so as to feed a continuous supply of soil to her head.
When comparing it to "Lucy," Lovejoy said, "They both have pelves, a complete lower limb bone and elements of the forelimb
, vertebral column and thorax.