Most creatures that had a toothy smile with exposed teeth and little if any soft tissue around the mouth, such as crocodiles and their relatives, had more than a hundred small foramina
on each bone around the jaw-line.
Firstly, the path of vertebral artery from the C2 to C4 transverse foramina
provides the antero-posterior (AP) position for needle placement.
3-7) Sublabral foramina
provide an opening to the sublabral recess through which debris can migrate.
Additionally, the sacral foramina
may be difficult to visualize under fluoroscopy.
A frequent mechanism of intracranial spread is through the neural foramina
, resulting in frequent cranial nerve symptoms, such as blindness, diploplia, facial numbness, and anosmia from nasal carcinomas.
The operation involved enlarging openings, called foramina
, in the neck vertebrae, which had been pinching on nerves in his neck.