And second, we hope to identify a limited set of rules that help readers to decide whether a text is internally focalized or not.
The first aim asks for an organization principle of internally focalized texts that operates on a basic sentential level.
From these maxims we infer a number of rules that may guide a reader's interpretive decisions in trying to make out whether a passage of text is internally focalized or not.
This means that in an internally focalized passage of text, our access to the fictional world is limited in a particular way.
Rather, our theory has empirical content to the extent that it predicts that what is said in internally focalized passages of text can be described as complying with the rules.
Then the last one of the important theoretical issues is that "the focalized can be perceived either from without or from within.
IF, Miriam focalizer, Paul focalized, PN:] He grovelled so helplessly, she pitied him.
IF, Paul focalizer or NF, Miriam focalized, PN:] And she bowed under her suffering.
IF, Miriam focalizer, Paul focalized (but the transition is uncertain, almost imperceptible even in deictics), NM:] Love her
Hence, the reader will consider these descriptions to be focalized through the narrator.
As we said, the rare chapters that seem to be externally focalized have to do with the cranes.
In other words: he cannot see that his focalized object is also a subject, with its own mental world.
In the externally focalized bird-section that opens part four, the focalization suddenly shifts and becomes internal.
the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)," the report states, adding that the UNFPA, "brought not only special financing but also demographic goals, for the focalized
reduction of the Peruvian population and the fecundity of Peruvian women, especially the women of rural areas.
by a first-person narrator, they capture a hallucinatory existence and a surreal world, indeed at times a narration from beyond the grave: "I do not know who records these words for me.