Functional and structural characterization of the integrase from the prototype foamy virus
Improved diagnostic assays have not documented evidence of foamy virus
infection in large populations (approximately 8000 persons) (3-7).
Risk assessment: a model for predicting cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus
from macaques (M.
Finally, nonhuman primates are host to potentially zoonotic viruses, such as simian foamy virus
, which has unknown pathogenic potential in infected persons (8), and Macacine herpesvirus 1, which causes severe, often fatal, neurologic disease in humans exposed to macaques with asymptomatic infection (9).
In contrast, zoonotic transmission of simian foamy virus
, a retrovirus ubiquitous in nonhuman primates, has been shown to occur from macaques to humans, probably through monkey bites, although this virus has not been shown to cause disease in humans (5).
Despite the high prevalence of STLV-1, simian foamy virus
, and simian immunodeficiency virus infections among red colobus populations (8) and the fact that this nonhuman primate species is the one most frequently hunted by humans (4), most zoonotic transmissions of retroviruses in western Africa seem to originate from sooty mangabeys, as shown here for STLV-1 and previously described for simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabeys, the precursor of HIV-2 (12).
In addition, contemporary simian foamy virus
infections from Angolan pied colobus and red- tailed guenons have been identified in persons living around an area where we collected samples from primate bushmeat, thus confirming ongoing cross-species transmission with simian retroviruses (35).
Widespread exposure to a broad range of NHP body fluids and tissues encountered during hunting, butchering, or keeping primates as pets has been implicated in the emergence of 3 different retrovirus genera: HIV, HTLV, and, more recently, simian foamy virus
Although reactivity of HMS 14 antiserum is weak, this serum was able to neutralize SFV but not the chimpanzee-derived primate foamy virus
, which confirmed infection (data not shown).
Seroprevalence of simian foamy virus
reached 88% among adult animals.
These are key sites for the emergence of nonhuman primate retroviruses because of the high levels of human contact with wild nonhuman primates (5) and cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus
(10) and primate T-lymphotropic viruses (11).
Simian foamy virus
(SFV) infections have been reported in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates and in a few hunters in Cameroon.
The simian foamy virus
has been identified as a zoonotic retrovirus that infects people who have direct contact with fresh nonhuman primate bushmeat; this finding indicates that such zoonoses are more frequent, widespread, and contemporary than previously appreciated.
Another chimpanzee retrovirus, simian foamy virus
, has been reported to infect persons exposed to primates at zoos and research centers (13) and to infect Bantus in Cameroon (14).
Biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), simian virus 40 (SV40), simian retrovirus (SRV), simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and simian foamy virus