However, the futility and financial frivolity of flunking is not the issue we want to address here.
Flunking removes lower-achieving students from the grade-level assessment pool.
Moreover, research suggests that the year following flunking is the year we can expect to see what appears to be improved reading achievement among the flunked children.
But if sixth grade happens to be located in a middle school, then the elementary school that did the flunking seems to be improving when it is not.
Without such a plan, flunking creates an apples-and-oranges problem.
An accountability system contaminated by flunking students, narrow test-prep curricula, manipulation of special education accommodations, and disregard for summer learning and forgetting is not an accountability system at all.
Thus reported improvements in reading achievement that have been manufactured through flunking, test preparation, or testing accommodations, though they are often touted in press releases and speeches by politicians, are more likely simply smoke and mirrors.
It was frustrating because I was doing everything I knew how to do, and I was still flunking
,'' Smith recalled.
At Mission College, students in a retention program contact others in danger of flunking
out of school.
With his friend in danger of flunking
a roadside sobriety test being given by deputies, Curt Klotz called the only number he could think of for help - 911.
Maradona was expelled from the last World Cup after flunking
a drug test.
And if legislation ending social promotion were approved this year, schools wouldn't be forced to start flunking students until 1999, said Dan Edwards, spokesman for Child Development and Education Secretary Marian Bergeson.
Higuchi said parents are often the main obstacle to flunking students - and their attitudes aren't likely to change.
Simply flunking students does more harm than good, he said.
Higuchi also was downbeat on flunking students, but he said discussing the issue out in the open is good for the school system.