6) Judith Banister, "China: Internal and Regional Migration Trends," in Floating Population and Migration in China, p.
The hukou, introduced during the first decade of the People's Republic of China, institutionalizes the denial of basic rights and services to China's so-called floating population of 150 million rural-to-urban migrant laborers.
26) Li Zhang, "The Interplay of Gender, Space, and Work in China's Floating Population," in Re-Drawing Boundaries: Work, Households, and Gender in China, eds.
29) Dorothy Solinger, "China's Floating Population," in The Paradox o China Post-Mao Reforms, eds.
37) Jasper Becker, "Beijing's Plan to Expel Half the Floating Population Next Year Angers Rights Activists," South China Morning Post, 1 November 1998, p.
The size of the floating population in China is large, an estimated 70-80 million in the early 1990s, of whom more than 70 per cent were migrants from rural to urban areas.
Since 1990, more than a third of the floating population have been women on average.
Without permanent household registration and on short-term employment contracts in the city, the floating population becomes marginalised and cannot enjoy the social welfare benefits available to permanent urban residents, most of whom are employed on long-term contracts.
Studies of the floating population of women to date, however, have focused mainly on fertility control among those who are married and of childbearing age.
All five cities have absorbed a large floating population in recent years.
In addition, 16 key informants were interviewed, including medical doctors, family planning workers, managers of factory dormitories, staff of the floating population management office, older migrant women and young migrant men.
The floating population of such a high proportion suggests that Dubai continues to provide the best opportunities in terms of work, while at the same time it offers world-class services which are not so readily available in other parts of the region," said Professor Mohammad Dulaimi, Associate Professor at the British University in Dubai (BuiD)
Although, the floating population might shed a positive light on Dubai's continued ability to attract people, it also poses a challenge to other emirates to compete.
Of that 900 million, roughly 200 million have already migrated to cities as migrant workers or floating populations
Also, the GCC is swiftly turning out to be one of the major commercial hubs globally and witnessing large floating populations