Over 9,000 flavonoids have been identified and categorized according to chemical structure into nine leading subgroups as chalcones, flavones
, flavonols, flavanones, flavanediols, anthocyanins, isoflavones, aurones and tannins (Fig.
We also examined the influence of luteolin on the mucin expression as MUC1 can be potentially involved in processes on which the flavone
C-glycosides, such as apigenin glycosides, are present in many food stuffs and nutraceuticals and have received much attention recently because of their antioxidant and anticancer properties (Huang et al.
backbone structure is characterized by a more stable conformation where B and A rings are almost parallel (Figure 8).
The results indicate the presence of volatile oils, tannins, polyuronides, traces of sterols and triterpenes; while we observe the absence of flavones
aglycones, anthracenosides aglycones and anthracenosides.
There are six flavonoid subclasses, including anthocyanidins, flavon-3-ols, and flavones
, with each contain hundreds of compounds within them.
The plant has also been reported to possess various novel secondary metabolites such as diterpenes, flavones
Equimolar mixture of 3-([omega]-bromoalkoxy)-substituted flavone
and substituted aniline/2-aminopyridine were refluxed in ethanol (100 mL) for 10-12 h.
Chemical Groups R L St Fl Volatile oils ++ +++ +++ +++ Alkaloids ++ ++ ++ ++ Flavone
aglycones + + + + Coumarins ++ +++ +++ +++ Tannins ++ ++ ++ ++ Saponins [+ or -] [+ or -] [+ or -] [+ or -] Flavone
glycosides [+ or -] ++ ++ ++ Chemical Groups F&S Volatile oils +++ Alkaloids ++ Flavone
aglycones + Coumarins +++ Tannins ++ Saponins [+ or -] Flavone
glycosides ++ (+) present, (++) present, (+++) present, ([+ or -]) Traces, (-) absent R: Roots, L : Leaves, St : Steams, Fl : Flowers, F&S: Fruits and Seeds Table 2: Essential oil composition from Ruta montana (Clus.
Extraction solutions were filtered and were analyzed in terms of total flavone
content (expressed in rutoside) and total polyphenols (as gallic acid) and antiradical capacity.
One of the 6 major subgroups of flavenoids is the subgroup of Flavone
including Flavon, Apigenin and Luteolin, which all three exist in chamomile.
In 2005 Japanese scientists reported that iron, magnesium and calcium work together with the plant compounds anthocyanin and flavone
to produce the blue of cornflowers.
Among twenty-three Rosiflore families chemically studied, twenty were shown to have produced flavonoids, nineteen of them were shown to have a preponderance of flavonols and in only nine families flavone
production has been recorded.
arjuna are gallic acid, ethyl gallate flavone
luteolin, found in citrus, also may be protective against ovarian cancer.