The outcomes associated with premature ductus constriction include right heart failure, fetal hydrops
, persistent pulmonary hypertension and death.
Findings on Dilation and Evacuation (D&E) Examination Suspicious for Specific Genetic Abnormality Genetic Abnormality Finding on D&E Turner sydrome Fetal hydrops
, prominent dorsal edema of (monosomy X) hands and feet, aortic coarctation Trisomy 18 Overlapping fingers, rocker-bottom feet, polydactyly Trisomy 13 Severe craniofacial anomalies, holoprosencephaly, midline cleft lip, abnormal skull base, polydactyly, splenopancreatic fusion, heart defects Trisomy 21 Wide space between first and second toes, clinodactyly, single palmar crease, heart defects, duodenal atresia Triploidy 3-4 syndactyly
Furthermore, we highlight the importance of irregular antibody screening for women with significant obstetric history and fetal hydrops
B19 of the family Parvoviridae is the etiologic agent responsible for a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as erythema infectiosum, postinfection arthropathies, fetal hydrops
, transient aplastic crises in patients with hemolytic anemia, and chronic infections, mainly in immunocompromised patients.
Cystic hygroma is commonly associated with fetal hydrops
and Turner syndrome.
The purpose of this therapy is to slow the inflammatory process to prevent progression of incomplete to complete congenital heart block, as well as to treat fetal hydrops
In fetuses in whom CCAM alone is present without fetal hydrops
, follow-up with serial USG and term delivery are recommended.
Although many obstetrical complications such as polyhydramnios, fetal hydrops
, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia may be associated with a large placenta, placentomegaly in PMD, in and of itself, is thought not to be the cause of fetal complications.
, which is often seen during an ultrasound examination that has been prompted by polyhydramnios, is an indication for fetal surgery.
Thus, women with an increased risk of Down syndrome based on multiple-marker screening should be counseled that Turner syndrome may be a possibility, even in the absence of fetal hydrops
The indications for referral for fetal echocardiographic examination were suspected congenital heart disease, fetal arrhythmia, and fetal hydrops
on routine obstetric ultrasound.
In very rare cases, the infection-also known as fifth disease and erythema infectiosum--can cause hepatitis or mild carditis in the fetus, but the real danger to the fetus is damage to red blood cell precursors and development of fetal hydrops