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According to Butler (1990), gender is performative in that bodies become gendered through this continual "doing" of masculinities or femininities, creating the false impression that gender is fixed and natural.
However, feminist literature has long identified various contradictions within young women's performances of appropriate femininity, suggesting it may be more useful to imagine women as negotiating a plurality of femininities in different contexts (Laurie, Dwyer, Holloway and Smith, 1999).
Griffin, Szmigin, Bengry-Howell, Hackley and Mistral (2013)--in recent and pivotal work on the tensions of performances of femininities within the NTE--note that there are clearly contradictions inherent in contemporary femininity in a supposedly "post-feminist" climate that render contemporary femininity a "profoundly contradictory and dilemmatic space which appears almost impossible for girls or young women to inhabit" (2013, p.
23) To a femme-inist who has spent ten years working on the problem of femininity in feminism and who has done extensive research on (queer) femininities this view of femininity raises a lot of questions.
The emphasis on the battle of the sexes, between Mars and Venus; dominators and subordinates, also means that the emphasis is on the two categories rather than on how femininity is treated or on relations between femininities.
To me, queer femme-ininity can (but doesn't always) share affinities and express solidarities with Asian femininities that are read as 'less liberated' or more in need of 'protection' and with Black femininities that are read as 'angry' or 'unfeminine'.
Dual femininities are enactments of a culturally gendered ideology and practice produced through a series of negotiations across class, culture, and gender systems.
We situate the concept of dual femininities within perspectives on gender as an active accomplishment produced in social interaction alongside of structural approaches that view gender as intimately tied to workplace organization and hierarchy.
Although women's integration into the legal profession has grown considerably, women and their femininities continue to be suspect.
Between Femininities can be situated within that discursive space between post-structuralist theorizing pertaining to the influence of institutional and normative structures and the postmodernist privileging of girls' voices, resistance and agency.
The privileging of these fictionalized characters articulating and being articulated by a contradictory mixture of discursive femininities reflect the ideological and cognitive work that is continually being performed by these girls, both in the performative space of school and in the symbolic universe made possible by/in the video.
DISAGGREGATING MULTIPLE FEMININITIES AND MASCULINITIES
Most studies on gender relations in organizations previous to Cheng (1996; 1997b) have been social-psychological and have not used sociological gender theory to define and distinguish the diversity of femininities and masculinities that exist.
Secondly, I discuss changing the face of those media/cultural influences through creating counter-representations of femininities.
These femininities are rife with power relations simply because the hegemonically feminine body takes up less space, averts her gaze, is gazed at, is less strong and muscular, is less assertive, and is valued primarily for her appearance.