5) This allows the virus to be carried to various organs in the body, including peripheral nerves, skin, and feather follicles
In studies of the feather follicle
development so far reported, most attention has intensively been focused on the formation (Dhouailly, 1970; Prum, 1999; Sawyer et al.
6,7) There is also one report of cutaneous pox involving feather follicles
around the uropygial glands in mynah birds (.
Laser feather follicle
ablation was successful in 28 of 40 of the treated common pintail feathers (70%), and flight was not observed 7 month after the procedure in any of these birds.
Key words: cryosurgery, cryoprobe, diode laser, pinion, pinioning, feather follicle
, avian, pigeon, Columba livia
Melanins, on the other hand, are synthesized by in the birds' bodies in special cells called "melanocytes," which work together with feather follicles
to achieve a fine control of pigmentation.
For years, it's been assumed that bacteria enter empty feather follicles
during poultry processing.
Once the fecal material--which contains the resistant Campylobacter--gets on the feathers and then into the feather follicles
, it becomes virtually impossible to get it out.
Long-term management may be required for return of plumage but would depend on chronicity of the condition and the degree of irreversible damage to feather follicles
Improper wing trimming can lead to damaged feather follicles
and can cause the bird discomfort, which can either aggravate feather plucking or cause the habit to form.
The proliferative lesions appeared to be centered around feather follicles
, and the nonfeathered skin appeared unaffected.
In 10 of 13 cases, sections of arthropod parasites were seen histologically within feather follicles
and along the surface of affected skin.
Some cases present with dead birds having "bubbly tail," fluid-filled blisters associated with broken feather follicles
around the base of the tail.
Diagnosis was based on clinical signs (dystrophic feathers and severe loss of contour feathers); the presence of viral DNA in a whole-blood sample, as determined by PCR testing; the presence of microscopic lesions (large numbers of histiocytic cells containing intracytoplasmic inclusions typical for circovirus); and positive results of immunohistochemical staining from the bursa of Fabricius and feather follicles
They are similar to basal cell tumors but are associated with feather follicles