Specifically, this research examines men's experiences with their own father (measured through the coresidence of a biological father, the presence of a father-figure and men's perceptions of their biological father's involvement in raising them) and how they relate to new father's attitudes toward fathering (measured as the centrality of fathering over career, the importance of fathers for sons relative to daughters, and the importance of direct involvement in childrearing vs.
When fathers disappear or withdraw, men often lose a same-sex role model on which to model their own parenting behaviors (Furstenberg and Weiss, 2000), though they may have had a father-figure in the form of a stepfather, male relative, or other influential person such as a minister or coach (Berger, Carlson, Bzostek, & Osborne, 2008; Bzostek, 2008; Bzostek, McLanahan, & Carlson, 2010), and these men can serve as role models as well.
Men with a social father or father-figure may hold more favorable attitudes toward fathering than men without a father-figure, as they may have had an opportunity to see father-like behaviors and thus use their experiences with social fathers as a contrast for their own father's perceived inadequacies.
Hypothesis 2: There would be no differences among those with uninvolved and those with very involved fathers, though there may be more favorable attitudes among those with a father-figure relative to those without a father-figure.
If the compensatory hypothesis is correct, then there would be no differences by father involvement, though possibly men with a father-figure would have more positive attitudes than men without a father-figure or coresidential father.