The 62% of respondents who indicated they were unwilling to pay a fair trade premium were directed to another set of statements and asked to pick which best described their rationale: "All voluntary trade is fair Any time I buy something made by someone else we both benefit" or "I believe that fair-trade, by increasing the price above market levels, hurts more low-income producers than it helps by limiting employment opportunities.
6 TABLE 3 Reasons for Being Willing or Not Willing to Pay a Premium for Fair Trade Products N % of Sample Reasons for being Willing to Pay a Premium for Fair-Trade Products Warm glow 18 6% Helping others 281 94% Total respondents 299 Reasons for Not being Willing to Pay a Premium for Fair-Trade Products 245 47.
Campaigns are run to increase campus understanding and consumption of fair-trade products.
While the program may appeal to the ethical and social attitudes of college students, fair-trade products, especially coffee, have their share of critics.
This means that private estate farmers and multinational companies such as Kraft or Nestle that grow their own coffee cannot be certified as fair-trade, even if they pay producers well, help create environmentally sustainable and organic products, and build schools and medical clinics for grower communities.
Think of fair-trade products as a type of luxury good.
This competition is a response to the perceived weaknesses of the fair-trade system itself--that the certification process imposes substantial costs on poor producers and that it is not the best way to create direct relations between retailer and producer.
For example, although Whole Foods sells fair-trade coffee, the company has developed an alternative "Whole Trade" brand that cuts out the fair-trade certification process, replacing it with a Whole Foods process.
The meaning of fair-trade to Conscious Coffees, which views it as an all-encompassing philosophy, is different than that of Starbucks or Sam's Club, which view the coffee as one of many "flavors" and do not adopt many of the movement's core sustainability beliefs.
For some retailers, the solution is to initiate "direct trade" relationships on their own terms with coffee farmers, forgoing fair-trade product certification from TransFair USA, the main regulatory agency on fair trade.
Like the organic label's growth in the '90s, awareness of fair-trade certification is growing among consumers, moving from 12 percent in 2004 to 27 percent in 2006, according to the National Coffee Association.
The chain has been a strong supporter of the fair-trade movement which guarantees producers a price which covers the cost of production and a basic living wage, plus a 'social premium' to help the local community.
Farmers selling their crop under the fair-trade system get up to three times the world price.
In Wrexham they're going further, aiming to make their county borough the first fair-trade county in Britain.
The idea is so new that the Fairtrade Foundation, which sets the standards fair-trade towns have to meet, doesn't yet have criteria for countries.