According to most studies, orbital radiotherapy is especially effective on soft-tissue inflammatory changes and extraocular muscle
dysfunction (if not fibrotic) and on optic neuropathy.
In general, each of the three sets of extraocular muscles
is reciprocally innervated so that one muscle in the pair contracts while the other relaxes.
paralysis occurs more commonly in cases of bite of a cobra snake whose toxin is mainly a neurotoxin (10).
It typically extends into the anterior orbital fat and sometimes involves the extraocular muscles
and/or the lacrimal gland(s).
Antibodies binding to the extraocular muscles
initiate a cascade of events that lead to the release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, resulting in proliferation of orbital fibroblasts, expansion of adipose tissue and enlargement of extraocular muscles
The mass invaded the extraocular muscles
, and complete excision would have led to irreparable deficits.
Untreated Graves' disease patients without clinical ophthalmopathy demonstrate a high frequency of extraocular muscle
(EOM) enlargement by magnetic resonance.
Strabismus -- sometimes called "crossed eyes" is caused by an imbalance of the extraocular muscle
The orientation of a globe may be determined by identification of extraocular muscle
insertions, the optic nerve, and other landmarks, as illustrated in Figure 1.
When the lateral orbital wall is fractured at the zygomaticosphenoid suture, problems--including increased orbital volume with enophthalmos or extraocular muscle
entrapment--may ensue and lead to diplopia.
Orientation of globe (based on identification of extraocular muscle
insertions and other landmarks) (note F) d.
Since the orbit is a relatively small anatomical area, space-occupying lesions which increase orbital volume may result in proptosis of the globe and may adversely affect visual and extraocular muscle
The patient's extraocular muscle
movements and visual acuity were intact bilaterally.
Orbital pseudotumor may involve extraocular muscles
, fat, sclera, optic nerve, or lacrimal gland.
4) The orbit contains extraocular muscles
, fat, the lacrimal gland and lacrimal apparatus, neurovascular structures, the globe, and surrounding fascia.