The dietary treatments were a typical lactation diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE).
Lactating sows fed PKE may be expected to have poor performance and nutrient utilization compared with those fed CON because palm kernel expellers contains greater fiber content than corn or soybean meal (NRC, 2012; Sulabo et al.
In addition, previous studies showed that palm kernel expellers contained relatively greater [beta]-mannans compared with other oil-seed co-products and conventional ingredients (Sulabo et al.
To our knowledge, the present experiment is the first to show the effects of palm kernel expellers in lactating sow diets and thus there are little corresponding data to compare with our findings.
The data for the low-pressure expellers relate to plants capable of 300 days of operation per year.
The output--input ratios for high-pressure expellers are the highest amongst the techniques compared.
It is clear that high-pressure expellers dominate all other techniques.
The dietary treatments were a typical nursery diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% palm kernel expellers (PKE) and were formulated to meet or exceed the NRC (2012) estimates of nutrient requirements of weaned pigs and to have similar metabolizable energy, crude protein, and lysine levels (Table 1).
To our knowledge, the present experiment is the first to show the effects of palm kernel expellers in nursery diets and thus there are little corresponding data to discuss our findings critically.
In conclusion, addition of 20% palm kernel expellers in nursery diets based on corn and soybean meal had no negative effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood profiles of weaned pigs.
Effects of phytase on standardized total tract digestibility of P in copra expellers, palm kernel expellers, and palm kernel meal fed to growing pigs.
Energy and nutrient composition of copra expellers (CE), palm kernel expellers (PKE), and cassava root (CR), as-is basis Item CE PKE CR DM (%) 89.
Edible oil industry, consists of lowgrade indigenous expellers (Kohlus) and screw press expellers.
Expeller mills produce 80 per cent of the total oil.
There are also large expeller mills of 200 tonnes seed per day.