In particular, because discoveries in this area are characterized by natural excludability
and embodied in human capital and because transmitting the discovery to others requires the active participation of those with the knowledge, the technology cannot be characterized as a nonrivalrous set of instructions.
1986) (affirming immigration judges, refusal to adjudicate excludability
problem, though sometimes a challenge, can often be overcome.
Though these are typically discussed as tests of excludability
, they are, in fact, joint tests of excludability
and homogeneity of treatment effects (Angrist 2010).
The second criterion, the excludability
restriction, cannot be tested when the model is just identified by a single exogenous instrument.
It replaces the binary concept of excludability
with the continuous one of exclusion cost, so that a children's playground, easily made excludable by building a fence and a employing a gatekeeper who sells entrance tickets, becomes a public good, nonexcluded, because letting rich children in and shutting poor ones out would involve too high [an] exclusion cost in terms of a bad social conscience.
the applicability of the public charge ground of excludability
A spillover occurs, for example, when a firm's privately created knowledge becomes publicly available and the firm lacks any legal mechanism to enforce excludability
is a function of both the technology and the legal system.
additional analysis of excludability
, see ROBERT COOTER & THOMAS
properly filing an Application for Waiver of Grounds of Excludability
Often, issues involving methods of accounting are those pertaining to timing--for example, whether an expenditure should be expensed or capitalized rather than issues of includability, excludability
A solution that tries to prevent future abuse of the excludability
from gross income of interest on state and local bonds for new stadiums by forbidding the section 103(a) exclusion on stadiums, while providing a new smaller tax incentive for renovations of current stadiums.
refers instead to the expected legal and economic feasibility of excluding anyone from using the results.
As with other types of club goods, the excludability
of payment information provides a profit incentive to motivate ongoing improvements in efficiency.