Figure 1: Types of Goods (43) Subtactability High Low High Private Goods Club Goods Excludability
Low Commons Public Goods
The newspaper industry's current practice of erecting paywalls seems to defy the excludability
attribute of online newspapers.
Cultural goods are, in fact, very heterogeneous in the range of excludability
of consumption, which can go from full to none.
See CORNES & SANDLER, supra note 3, at 9 ("The literature often treats certain types of physical goods or services as inherently possessing rivalry or nonrivalry, excludability
One typical way is through entrepreneurial technological innovation and the institutional allowing of excludability
and enforcement of property rights.
Local governments have to ensure the supply of general public services, like the presence of state power in towns and parishes, as well as the supply of mixed public goods and services that can be individualized (they satisfy the conditions of excludability
and rivalry) and that directly increase the welfare of the population--education, leisure and culture services, economic services and public utilities.
That is, even assuming strict excludability
(which is a dubious assumption), patenting a social innovation would be unlikely to generate significant revenues and thus incentives for creation.
Amy Kapczynski & Talha Syed, The Continuum of Excludability
and the Limits of Patents, 122 Yale L.
Overcoming the Excludability
Problem: Closing the Commons 1.
A parallel argument can be deployed to illustrate the excludability
of another supposedly common good--lighthouses.
We compare results for the daughter-in-law and daughter samples to check the assumption of the excludability
of the instruments for the daughter sample.
However, the presence of fees, which may bar persons from attending TLIs based on their inability to pay, introduces the characteristic of excludability
to the consumption of teaching services.
CPRs are also defined as goods of high subtractability and difficult excludability
The key issue for the present discussion is however rivalry, not excludability
occurs when the producer of a good is unable to keep non-payers from its consumption, non-rivalrous consumption, when the marginal cost to a seller, of providing a good to an additional consumer is zero (Pennington, 2000).