Sylvatic epidemic typhus, hereafter referred to as sylvatic typhus, is a rare but potentially lethal zoonotic exanthematous disease
caused by Rickettsia prowazekii.
This clone belongs to the sequence type (ST) 5-SCCmec II clone, formerly named "NewYork/Japan clone," which has been associated with neonatal TSS-like exanthematous disease
in Japanese hospitals (4-6).
TSS in neonates, referred to as neonatal TSS-like exanthematous disease
, has been shown by flow cytometric analysis to involve an expansion of T-cell-receptor V[beta]2-positive T cells (4,5).
No evidence for leptospirosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, viral exanthematous diseases
, or streptococcal scarlet fever has been found in those patients in whom it has been looked for.
Despite veterinary surveillance efforts of border control organizations, VACV control may be hampered by the circulation of infected rural workers and the misdiagnosis of VACV infection; misdiagnoses occur because VACV lesions resemble those of other exanthematous diseases