The nomenclature adopted for the esophageal glands
(glandulae oesophageae) is another complicating factor in defining the cardia.
Digestive tract starts from oral opening situated subterminally, leading into esophagus which is surrounded by esophageal glands.
Esophagus 460 (450-580) long, surrounded by esophageal glands at its distal part.
In a comparison study of the relationship among the distal end of esophageal longitudinal vessels, the proximal end of gastric mucosal folds, and the most distal end of deep esophageal glands
and ducts, Sato et al (17) systematically investigated the entire EGJ in 87 consecutive resection specimens from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Srivastava et al (32) evaluated mucosal biopsy samples from 20 patients with Barrett esophagus and 20 patients with intestinal metaplasia of the gastric cardia; they found that intestinal metaplasia subjacent to squamous epithelium, intestinal metaplasia confined to the superficial mucosa, and presence of esophageal glands
or ducts were only seen in samples from patients with Barrett esophagus (with sensitivity of 57%, 40%, and 30%, respectively).