In the NFC control, the esophageal fistulae were always closed by the esophageal fistula plugs and the animals ate dry forage in the normal manner but were deprived of water during feeding.
On the experimental days, before starting the FBR treatment of experiment 2, the plug for closing the esophageal fistula was removed and an esophageal cannula for collecting boluses was fitted into the fistula (Figure 2B).
Before starting the SFC control of experiment 1, and both the RIAPS-NB control and the RIHS-IB treatment of experiment 2 in the present study on experimental days, the plug for closing the esophageal fistula was removed and a cannula for collecting boluses was fitted into the fistula.
In the SFC and RIAPS-NB controls, saliva lost via the esophageal fistula was replenished by an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva.
The weight of water that was infused into the balloon in the rumen in experiment 2 was equivalent to the weight of feed boluses removed via an esophageal fistula during the 2 h feeding period.
Before starting experiment 1 (in both the NIB control and the RIB treatment) and experiment 2 (in both the RRIAS-NIB control and the RRIAS-RIB treatment), the plug for closing the esophageal fistula was removed and a cannula for collecting boluses was fitted into the fistula.
The bolus output from the esophageal fistula (g) was measured during the 2 h of feeding (11:00 to 13:00 h) by using a feed box attached to a 12 kg measuring scale which was used to determine the weight of the bolus output from the esophageal fistula every 10 min.
Studies using an esophageal fistula in sheep and cattle have been reported previously (Yarns et al.
Shaikh was the first physician in New Jersey to perform endoscopic suturing cases, the first to repair esophageal fistulas via endoscopic techniques and the first to repair gastric pouches for mechanical defects of dilated gastric outlets and pouches as well as the first to endoscopically repair sleeve leaks and endoscopically remove an eroded gastric lap band.
Over 20 incidences of esophageal fistulas, or open holes between the heart and the esophagus, have been reported in the medical literature as a result of left atrial RF ablation of patients with atrial fibrillation.