0056 DEG, differentially expressed gene; MAPK, mitogen activated protein kinase; ErbB, erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog; TGF, transforming growth factor; RIG-I, retinoic acid-inducible gene 1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; Ig, immunoglobulin; ECM, The extracellular matrix.
8) Human genes: ERBB2 (also known as HER2), v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2; EML4, echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase; BRAF, B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor.
34) Myeloid to erythroid ratio, as a specific element, received the least attention in the literature reviewed, with its relevance stated specifically only in chronic MPN, (34) although, by expert panel consensus, erythroid enumeration is also relevant to current diagnosis and classification of specific subtypes of AML, such as acute erythroblastic
Recently, substantial progress has been made in the discovery of new biomarkers, such as activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)  and the kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) gene and amplification of the v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2) and the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4--anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (EML4--ALK) fusion gene.
Anerythroblastic type of Cooley's erythroblastic
To determine tumor expression of ERBB2 (v-erb-b2 erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) in mammary cancer cohort mice, paraffin sections were placed onto Superfrost/ Plus slides (Fisher Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA), and then deparaffinized and cleared.
An interesting observation was noted for sample CTC003, in which CTC status was defined as negative by AdnaGen assay on the basis of the low expression of 7 selected genes [EPCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), MUC1 (mucin 1, cell surface associated), ERBB2 (v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, [HER2]), AKT2 (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2), PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha), TWIST1 (twist family bHLH transcription factor 1), and ALDH1A1 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1)], but still showed an expression for PAM50 panel genes not dissimilar from that of true CTC-positive samples.
We designed highly purified salt-free OliGold primers (Eurogentec, Seraing, Belgium) for the internal control gene hypoxanthine phosphoribosyhransferase 1 (HPRT1) and for target genes estrogen receptor-[alpha] (ESR1), progesterone receptor (PGR), PDZ domain containing 1 (PDZK1), and erb-b2 erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2) using Roche Lightcycler software (Roche Diagnostics Belgium, Vilvoorde, Belgium).
9) Kris et al (10) reported on the prevalence of 10 driver gene mutations detected in 830 patients with lung adenocarcinoma enrolled in the National Cancer Institute's (Bethesda, Maryland) Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium studies: Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS), 25% (n = 107); EGFR, 23% (n = 98); ALK rearrangements, 6% (n = 14); B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF), 3% (n = 12); phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), 3% (n = 11); MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (MET) amplifications, 2% (n = 4); v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2), 1% (n = 3); mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1 [MEK1]), 0.
For example, evaluation of the status of the v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2, formerly HER2/ Neu) status can stratify subsets of breast cancer patients who are likely to respond to trastuzumab.
3 member 1 ERBB2 V-erb-b2 erythroblastic
leukemia viral 17q12-q21.
Other significantly mutated single genes reported in TNBC include: USH2A, myosin IIIA (MYO3A), PTEN, retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR), ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 1 (UBR1), collagen, type VI, alpha 3 (COL6A3), and several well-known oncogenes [v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF), neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog (NRAS), v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2), and v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (ERBB3)] (18,42,58).
Increased amounts of the cell cycle proteins cyclin E and p16, amplification and overexpression of the ERBB2 [v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2] gene (which encodes the ERBB2 receptor tyrosine kinase), loss of BAF250A production, and altered amounts of the cell adhesion proteins claudin-3, claudin-4, L1CAM (L1 cell adhesion molecule), EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule), and E-cadherin have also been documented [reviewed in (24)].
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ERBB2) is amplified in ~2% of NSCLCs, (17,18) and mutated in ~2% of NSCLCs, (18-20) though it is overexpressed in about 20% of cases.
The quantitative ability of dPCR has already been applied to monitoring viral load (14) and measuring copy number variations in HER2 (ERBB2, v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic
leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2) gene status in breast cancer (15).