Cunningham, "Missing value imputation for epistatic
MAPs," BMC Bioinformatics, vol.
How much such epistatic
effects contribute to the genetic variation in the predisposition to T2D is unknown, and so far there is little evidence in human studies (91-93) that epistatic
changes contribute to disease pathology.
CRP and FCRG2A genes have an epistatic
effect on carotid artery intima-media thickness: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
Since hypertension has a complex pathophysiology involving multiple pathways that modulate blood pressure, it is being increasingly observed that genetics of hypertension is not based on single gene of major effect, rather epistatic
interactions among multiple genes with mild to moderate effects may contribute to its pathophysiology.
Recently, Tory and colleagues (165) proposed epistatic
effects against NPHP1 mutations from mutated NPHP6 and AHI1 in patients recorded with JBTS.
For example, one recent semester involved an experiment with epistatic
interaction of eye colors using the linked autosomal eye color genes, cinnabar and brown.
20) However, the APOE [epsilon]4 allele is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause the disease, indicating epistatic
or epigenetic mechanisms.
The complex interactions resulting in differential disease susceptibility and progression necessitate further investigation of epistatic
interactions, which occur when the action of one gene is modified by one or several other genes.
Identifying specific genes is further complicated by incomplete penetrance, pleiotropy (multiple effects of a single gene), and epistatic
interactions (several genes interacting in the same individuals) .
However, increased fitness may not carry through to later generations because of a disruption of positive epistatic
interactions among parental alleles due to recombination during and beyond the [F.
Analysis of the double mutant reveals that ant-4 is epistatic
to 35S::AVP1, which suggests that ANT acts downstream of AVP1 in a single pathway regulating floral organ growth.
Nor do we know the pleiotropic and epistatic
effects that other genes might have in altering the penetrance of the suspected mutation.
and Epithal lead stabilizers for PVC include tribasic lead sulfate, basic lead silico-sulfate, and dibasic lead phthalate.
To this end we have curated a list of 1,187 genes representing ER, Golgi, Endosomes and Lysosomes (EGEL) around which we develop independent but interconnected approaches: (i) RNA-seq and antibody microarrays to identify co-regulated MTMs; (ii) high-content siRNA screening to define functional MTMs; (iii) epistatic
functional analysis between EGEL genes and five membrane trafficking disease genes (TRAPPC2 in chondrocytes, Sec23A in osteoblasts, OCRL and CLCN5 in proximal tubular epithelial kidney cells, and VAPB in neuronal cells); and (iv) studies of protein-protein interactions to generate functional and physical networks centered on the disease genes.
Because an autotetraploid can theoretically carry four alleles per locus, the number of combinations within a gene and in epistatic
interactions among genes is much higher than can be achieved in diploids.