3,4) In some cases, actual pockets of fluid have been identified in a compartment-like space confined laterally by the ITB and medially by the meniscocapsular junction, the lateral collateral ligament, and the lateral femoral epicondyle
We assessed severity of average pain during the day and pain under strain (visual analog scale (VAS); 0: no pain - 100 mm: maximum pain); local tenderness of the lateral epicondyle
after firm pressure was applied to the painful area (0-3 point scale: absent, mild, moderate, severe) (10); pain on resisted extension of middle finger and wrist with the arm extended (0-3 point scale: absent, mild, moderate, severe); pain-free grip strength in the affected arm (average of two readings with a Jamar hand-held dynamometer-Sammons Preston, AbilityOne, US) in each patient (11).
The ulnar nerve traverses the medial epicondyle
on the posterior aspect of the elbow.
The examiner may find a palpable defect at the medial patellar margin, tenderness along the course of the MPFL and the other medial retinacular ligaments, or tenderness near the medial femoral epicondyle
at the MPFL insertion site.
63) With the biceps tenodesis technique, the biceps tendon is fastened down to the lateral femoral condyle to a point 1 cm anterior to the epicondyle
Two surface EMG electrodes (Shimmer; Dublin, Ireland) were attached two fingerbreadths distal to the lateral epicondyle
 to monitor ECRB and ECRL muscle activity during wrist extension.
A ground electrode was placed over the medial epicondyle
of the humerus bone.
Concerning the goniometer, its axis was placed over the major trochanter, the stationary arm was placed horizontally (parallel to the table) and the moving arm pointing to the lateral epicondyle
of the femur (Witvrouw at al.
We placed reflective markers on the lateral epicondyle
of the knee and the lateral malleolus of both limbs.
The triceps lies posteriorly along with the olecranon tip and the anconeus, which runs from the lateral epicondyle
to the proximal ulna.
Markers were attached to the head of the Ulna (wrist marker) and the lateral epicondyle
of the Humerus (elbow marker) in order to assess movement patterns of the right arm.
at the metacarpophalangeal joints, wrist joint, 15 cm distal to the lateral epicondyle
, and 10 cm proximal to the lateral epicondyle
A joint effusion may be appreciated by palpation of the "soft spot" marked by the radial head, lateral epicondyle
, and proximal olecranon.
Black, hemispherical markers were placed on both sides of the body on the following anatomical landmarks: acromion process (shoulder); lateral epicondyle
of the ulna (elbow); midpoint of the styloid process of the radius and ulna (wrist); greater trochanter of the femur (hip); lateral epicondyle
of the femur (knee); lateral malleolus of the fibula (ankle); and fifth metatarsal (toe).
To calculate the hand position, we transformed joint angles into joint positions using segment lengths of the upper arm (defined as the distance between the acromion and the lateral epicondyle
of the humerus) and forearm (defined as the distance between the lateral epicondyle
of the humerus and the third metacarpophalangeal joint).