If, to this narratological criterion, we add the enunciation parameter of verbal temporality, we may obtain the following synthetic table as a categorization of Burkina novels (see opposite page).
The table reveals a clear predominance of this type of narrators in Burkinabe novels (30/36), with the enunciation operating under two main modes, if we consider the basic narrative tense.
The following enunciation from Le proces du muet ("The trial of the deaf-mute", 1987: 224-226) illustrates these irruptions of SP in PRES/PRES narratives: (9)
Actually, this is a generalized competitive game obtaining even in grammatical and enunciation micro-structures such as subordinate clauses and free indirect speeches.
12) For him, PP and SP constitute the marks, the indices of two enunciation levels, which he names "story" (story enunciation) and "discourse" (discursive enunciation):
This has led to a radicalization of the distinction between the two enunciation modes, one of which is transformed into a textual mode.
Taking two diegetic modes into consideration seems to me useful in getting out of the deadlock of the two enunciation levels usually cited--discourse or comment vs.
This enunciation tri-partition also obtains in Adam (1997, 2005) and Adam, Lugrin and Revaz (1998) in the following schematic form:
TRADITIONAL LEVEL "DISCOURSE" or "COMMENT" "STORY" or "NARRATIVE" of ENUNCIATION Interaction Diegesis Enunciation Direct Linked Autonomous modes Pivotal Deictic Present Diegetic Simple past tenses (20) Imperfect present perfect Performative Rooting marks I/you Yesterday Once upon a time Now Last year In those days
To say that with such temporal transitions, "it is Benveniste's reader who feels embarrassed because the simple past and the present perfect appear in the same sentence, without anything justifying the change in the enunciation (and this is not a case of accidental skid)" (Caitucoli 1988: 263), (26) is tantamount to somewhat reducing the explanatory power of Benveniste's theory, which Adam's and Revaz's (Adam, Lugrin and Revaz 1998: 96) explanations clarify:
That these two verbal drawers, which are mutually exclusive on the level of the enunciation, mutually attract each other on the diegetic level is a sufficient argument to dispel the doubts about the narrators of Burkinabe novels committing grammatical offense.
The explanatory principle used here is alternation-telescoping between autonomous diegesis (de-centering the narration from the narrative moment, with SP) and linked diegesis (rooting the narration in the situation of the fictitious enunciation, with SP, as if the narrator did not want to let the events narrate themselves) or between two French temporal sub-systems (the present centering on the PRES and the past centering on the SP/IMP pair).