For nonpolio enteroviruses
, we used primer pairs 222/224 and 88/89 for partial VP1 sequencing for identification of enterovirus type (19,20).
Examples of enteroviruses
include the common cold, ear infections, meningitis, and myocarditis.
DISCUSSION: Hand-Foot-Mouth disease is an acute highly contagious disease caused by several enteroviruses
, such as coxsackie virus A6, A10, A16 and enterovirus 71.
According to the CDC, there are hundreds of types of enteroviruses
and rhinoviruses, and both can cause symptoms such as the common cold or severe illnesses.
Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness caused by enteroviruses
that predominantly affect infants and children younger than 5 years old.
Bu rarely enteroviruses
cause life-threatening diseases like viral meningitis, encephalitis and myocarditis.
This association was particularly strong for norovirus genogroup I (NoV-GI) and between adult AGI and enteroviruses
when echovirus serotypes predominated.
The Guangdong Women and Children's Hospital, as the national enterovirus monitoring agent, is particularly well prepared to investigate enteroviruses
, because its laboratory regularly detects HEV71 and CA16 viruses as well as other common enteroviruses
in large number of patients.
HFMD is caused by various types of viruses known as enteroviruses
Members of the non-polio enteroviruses
, such as coxsackieviruses, echoviruses and enteroviruses
, have been shown to cause the disease.
Conjunctivitis epidemics in Dar es Salaam have been due to enteroviruses
70 (EV-70), coxsackie virus A24, adenoviruses and gonococcal ophthalmia, (4) which cause photophobia, watering, foreign body sensation, eyelid oedema, conjunctival haemorrhages and superficial punctuate keratitis (acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis).
The human enteroviruses
are classified into 4 species in the genus Enterovirus on the basis of their genetic relationships.
The link between enteroviruses
and the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes probably involves and interplay between viruses, pancreatic beta-cells, the innate and adaptive immune systems, and the genotype of the patient.
While more studies are necessary to understand these associations and to establish pathogenic mechanisms of enterovirus infections, clear evidence of an association between enteroviruses
and type 1 diabetes "opens up the possibility of developing new preventive and therapeutic strategies to fight this disease.
Childhood diabetes has been linked to enteroviruses
, which can lead to cold, flu and even meningitis.