Within the green plant cell are found the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and endoplasmic reticulum
with ribosomes, the Golgi apparatus, and microtubules.
Also, the cytoplasm contains sparsely distributed free ribosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum
, and mitochondria (Fig.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum
was well developed and showed an organized pattern.
The endoplasmic reticulum
contains a unique pathway for the folding and retention of glycoproteins, central to which is calnexin (7) which assists in the initial folding of glycoproteins, retains transport-incompetent misfolded glycoproteins, and may function in assembling of oligomeric proteins in the ER (8).
A mutation linked with autism reveals a common mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum
retention for the [alpha],[beta]-hydrolase fold protein family.
With cytoplasmic growth, several small mitochondria, well-developed endoplasmic reticulum
and several vacuoles were concentrated around the nucleus in the cytoplasm of the previtellogenic oocyte.
Objective: In neurons, Endoplasmic reticulum
(er) organelle shows physical continuity between dendrites, Cell body and axonal presynaptic terminals, And has been termed a neuron within a neuron .
sup],, In the year 2011, HSP18, also known as Spastic Paraplegia 18 (SPG18), was firstly identified due to a candidate gene endoplasmic reticulum
lipid raft-associated protein 2 ( ERLIN2 ) on chromosome 8p11.
2A), the radiation only group had swelling in mitochondria, decrease and disorder in the arrangement of cristae, decrease in number of the short and irregular microvilli, invagination in the nuclei, vesiculation in granulated endoplasmic reticulum
, a transition from granulated endoplasmic reticulum
to smooth endoplasmic reticulum
, and enlargement within the intercellular area (Figs.
Evodiamine induces G2/M arrest and apoptosis via mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum
pathways in H446 and H1688 human small-cell lung cancer cells.
And DsbA-L (previously named as GST Kappa), a newly identified endoplasmic reticulum
associated protein chaperone interacting with adiponectin, was significantly reduced in diabetic heart (Figures 2(a) and 2(e)).
Interestingly, genes encoding Endoplasmic Reticulum
(ER)-resident proteins are upregulated during both types of defense.
ATP2A2 located on 12q23-24, encodes the endoplasmic reticulum
Ca 2+ ATP, which is a calcium pump.
It is overexpressed in the endoplasmic reticulum
where it functions as a chaperone protein assisting in protein folding events (Pfaffenbach and Lee, 2011).
SREBPs are made and embedded in the membrane of the cellular compartment called the endoplasmic reticulum
, or ER.