Other morphological similarities also link the Hydrocotyle-Trachymene group to members of Araliaceae, including sclerified endocarps
and laterally-compressed, bicarpellate fruits.
Drupe fruits are formed of red exocarp, edible fleshy mesocarp, and stony endocarp with 1-2 seeds.
In addition to hard woody endocarp, it seems the seed coat delays or decreases seed germination in this species.
americanus are drupes containing an indurate endocarp
(Green 1958), and vascular strands within the pericarp are located in the outer portions of the endocarp
adjacent to the mesocarp (Figures 6 and 7), a location identical to that of Olea europaea L.
In Solova, 13 800 cal yr BP, however, the amount of aquatic remains declined, except for a small cluster of Potamogeton filiformis endocarps and the appearance of a cosmopolitic pondweed species, Potamogeton natans.
filiformis endocarps in the samples is almost continuous albeit in small numbers.
Other nut species used as Aboriginal food are more durable through their large size, their thick and tough endocarp, and their toxic properties, a deterrent to many predators.
Incised slate grinding-stones, nut hammers and indented nutstones were used to crack the hard endocarp and grind the kernels of many toxic and non-toxic nut-bearing trees, including Prunus turneriana, Lepidozamia hopei, Castanospermum australe, Aleurites moluccana, Athertonia diversifolia, Macadamia whelanii, Beilschmiedia bancroftii, Elaeocarpus bancroftii and Endiandra palmerstonii.
Berry (1926) describes palm endocarps from the Middle Eocene of Peru that he compares with two modern genera of the tribe Cocoseae (Astrocaryum and Attalea) based on the size, the presence of longitudinal fiberous bands and overall appearance.
Coconut-like endocarps from both the North and South islands of New Zealand were found in deposits dated to mid-Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene (Ballance et al.
are the endocarps of Iodes germanica from the Maastrichtian of Germany (Table 9) while the earliest vegetative structures seem to go back to the Late Albian with the fossil wood Icacinoxylon (Table 9).
Acc = Accepted Fossil taxon Organ Age Hydrangeaceae Tylerianthus crossmanensis Flower Turonian Gandolfo, Nixon et Crepet 1998 Comaceae Cornus clarnensis Endocarp Middle Eocene Manchester 1994 Mastixioxylon symplocoides Wood Middle-Late Meijer 2000 Santonian Cornaceae/Nyssaceae Nyssoxylon sp.
The remains found are of four main kinds: carbonized or dry endocarps
or seeds, phytoliths, pollen, and implements.
Thus seed mortality of the canopy palm Attalea butyracea (as Scheelea rostrata) is strongly affected by local topography in a Costa Rican forest (Janzen, 1971): only 1-6% of endocarps
below adults in stream bottoms are attacked by bruchids, whereas [greater than]80% endocarps
below adults just 15 m away and outside the stream bottom are infested (Janzen, 1971).
A morphological study of Nyssa endocarps
from Eocene deposits in western Tennessee.