Analysed charcoal was identified using charred nut endocarp
reference samples at the Australian National University.
The diaspores, which consist of the endocarp
and the seed, were provided by the EMATER Training Center located on campus II of the Universidade Federal de Goias.
Poor germination of Ziziphus seeds seems causes by dormancy, hard woody endocarp
and even seed coat that covering around the seeds.
americanus are drupes containing an indurate endocarp
(Green 1958), and vascular strands within the pericarp are located in the outer portions of the endocarp
adjacent to the mesocarp (Figures 6 and 7), a location identical to that of Olea europaea L.
The inner mesocarp consists of macrosclereids with lignified thick-walled; the macrosclereids are arranged more or less perpendicular to middle mesocarp and endocarp
The pericarp and the outer coat of the endocarp
are inedible, while the mesocarp and kernel flesh are edible.
is the name for the edible pulp inside a lemon
In addition to kernels, a renewable charcoal from the woody fruit endocarp
is the cooking fuel most used in Maranhao, with growing markets for industrial use after conversion to coke.
PLACIDL tp = placidly PLACIDYL ta3 = deiphically, edaphically VALIUM tp = maulvi VALIUM ta2 = alluvium, impluvia, misvalue, velarium PERCODAN tp = endocarp
PERCODAN ta1 = cardphone, endocarps
, phonecard DEMEROL tp = modeler, remodel DEMEROL ta1 = modelers, rebeldom, remolade, remodels DILAUDID ta6 = individualized LIDOCAINE ta1 = decisional HYCODAN ta2 = diachylon
Three treatments were used for seed dormancy breaking including scarification of seed endocarp
with sandpaper, treatment with sulphuric acid (95%) for periods of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min and immersion in boiling water for 10 min.
in general, Myrtaceae fruits have several characteristics, such as thin pericarp, soft endocarp
, volatiles, color, and size that may favor parasitoid success, either by increasing attractiveness to wasps or by establishing easier host larva detection (Sivinski et al.
A total of 40 flotation samples was examined which produced five identified taxa including oil palm endocarp
and kernels (E.
Large numbers of endocarp
fragments of Attalea butyracea are reported at numerous locations in the Gran Chocle and Gran Chiriqui regions of western Panama from 7000 BP to European conquest (Smith, 1980; Cooke and Ranere, 1992; Dickau, 2010).
The epicarp breaks easily when the fruit is mature, and the mesocarp is thin and fibrous; a very rigid endocarp
is tightly adhered to the mesocarp.
Fruits exocarp, mesocarp and hard endocarp