The animal model was readied by creating a fistula through an end-to-side anastomosis
between the right distal external jugular vein (EJV) and the ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA), followed by ligation of the left vein draining the transverse sinus and bilateral external carotid arteries.
Transplants obtained from living donors often involve an end-to-side anastomosis
of the donor renal artery to the recipient external iliac artery or an end-to-end anastomosis of the donor renal artery to the recipient internal iliac artery.
Donor flaps were dissected out in standard fashion and the local vessels prepared for an end-to-side anastomosis
The microvascular anastomosis between the radial and facial arteries was performed using 9-0 nylon sutures, while the cephalic and internal jugular veins were connected via an end-to-side anastomosis
Arterial inflow is reliable, and a side-to-side anastomosis to the median antebrachial vein or an end-to-side anastomosis
to the communicating vein allows dialysis access both in the upper arm and, in a retrograde fashion, in the forearm.