A conditional knock-in murine model of IDH alteration has been employed to generate enchondromas
when driven by the Col2a1 promoter (63) and has been shown to generate hyperproliferative marrow along with epigenetic alterations seen in myeloid neoplasms when driven by the LysM promoter.
29,30) Like enchondromas
, giant cell tumors have characteristic features on radiographs, which typically allows for confident diagnosis.
may be observed.
MRI findings may be useful in distinguishing enchondromas
in the long bones from bone infarcts.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and IDH2 mutations characterize cartilaginous tumors such as enchondromas
and chondrosarcomas, but are absent in CBT.
Here we present an interesting case of Maffucci syndrome with a history of malignant transformation of enchondromas
and recurrent hemangiomas that required multiple prophylactic surgical excisions.
Ollier's disease also confers an increased risk of malignancy, with transformation of the enchondromas
into chondrosarcomas being noted, most often around age 40.
of the skull base are exceedingly rare.
For example, in metachondromatosis, the growth of bones is affected, leading to multiple enchondromas
and osteochondromas mainly in tubular bones.
Some lesions, such as solitary bone cysts (Figure 4), enchondromas
(Figure 5), EG and Ewing's sarcoma, tend to be centrally located.
are hyaline cartilage tumors in the medullary canal.
Chondrosarcomas may arise de novo (primary), or superimposed (secondary) upon preexisting cartilaginous lesions, such as enchondromas
If arising within the medullary cavity, they are known as enchondromas
sometimes cause dyschondroplasia of the long bones during childhood.
Cartilaginous tumors (such as osteochondromas, enchondromas
, and chondrosarcomas) may produce irregularly shaped calcifications within their matrix that resemble popcorn on imaging studies (Figure 16).