Citizen scientists' perception of the emergence event was categorized qualitatively via assess ment of general comments.
Citizen scientists expressed a range of positive accounts of the periodical cicada emergence from rescuing emerging adults from predation, photography, home-school education opportunities, to a willingness to provide additional monitoring information throughout the emergence event.
Recommendations for improving future cicada monitoring projects include: 1) coordinating interested South Carolina institutions and agencies in 2023 to create one common website with one supervisor, 2) implementing early outreach efforts to inform citizen scientists on what to expect from the upcoming emergence to reduce negative reactions and 3) include a short questionnaire to more accurately assess citizen scientists' perception of the emergence experience.
There were also isolated emergences of periodical cicadas from several Brood X locations in 2008.
The 2008 emergence in Athens County, Ohio was a new county record for the brood.
We observed cicadas emerging from beneath the same trees where cicadas emerged four years earlier, and we observed oviposition on trees riddled with oviposition scars from the 2004 emergence of Brood X.
In addition, pathogen evolution may greatly affect the likelihood of disease emergence by increasing the pathogen's basic reproductive ratio ([R.
This report provides a conceptual framework to understand the ecologic characteristics of disease emergence based on between- and within-species transmission rates involving a potential disease reservoir population and a target host population.
The oldest historical record of Brood X was made by the Reverend Andreas Sandel, who briefly described its 1715 emergence in Philadelphia (Kritsky 2004).
To determine which meteorological factors might predict when in May the emergence would begin, it was necessary to gather weather information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency for previous emergence years.