The diagnosis of elapid
neurotoxic snake bite, especially when the patient is unaware of being bitten or where the culprit has not been identified, may occasionally be difficult.
87) Although the common brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) has a less effective biting mechanism than other Australian elapid
snakes, the danger lies in the speed with which the venom enters the circulation.
Reverse thermoregulatory patterns in nocturnal snakes have been recorded in a small temperate boid, the rubber boa (Charina bottae), and in a nocturnal elapid
from southeastern Australia, the broad-headed snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides).
Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients bitten by taipans (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni) and other elapid
snakes in Papua New Guinea.
Acanthophis slightly modified the typical elapid
morphology which allowed it to approach but not achieve viper-like kinematics.
The snakes belong to the elapid
family, squamata order, and reptilia class.
McCarthy (1987) proposed that the relatively simple scale microornamentation in sea snakes (Laticauda colubrina: brachylamellate basally, cellular polygonal imbricate apically; McCarthy 1987, Price and Kelly, 1989) when compared to the relatively more complex microornamentation of terrestrial elapids
was "perhaps connected with an anti-fouling strategy".
These differences are not only found between distinct major groups of venomous snakes, such as the elapids
, which include cobras and mambas, but also within a single species in different regions.
Rats (Rodentia), cats (Felidae), monkeys (Primates), goats (Bovidae), chickens (Galliformes), and rarely some snakes act as intermediate hosts, while snakes (boids, elapids
, viperids, and crotalids) serve as the final hosts (Reid and Jones, 1963; Pare, 2008).