This is achieved by efference
from the VOR and the vestibulospinal reflexes.
Anatomically, the cerebellum receives appropriate inputs of efference
copy from the motor cortex, and contains neural circuitry appropriate for control and for learning (Stein & Glickstein, 1992).
3) Invoking Robinson's (1975) closed-loop model of the oculomotor system, we suggest that the first eye-position signal is the oculomotor system's reference signal specifying intended eye orientation, and that the second is an efference
copy representing actual eye orientation.
However, given the existence of another channel from subvertical lobe to optic lobes, it is conceivable that an efference
copy of the motor program, generated in the vertical-superior frontal system, could be discharged to optic lobes (Fig.
Proprioception is defined as the perception of position, motion, and force generated by the body based on sensory information from muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, joint and cutaneous receptors, and efference
copy of motor commands [35-37].
Effect of context and efference
copy on visual straight ahead.
The pronounced ODs in the right intermanual grasps might even point towards an on-line triggering of the grasp onset based on sensory information or efference