The results obtained in the present study do not clarify the role of SES as an effect modifier of the association between mortality and variation in [NO.
2] and cause-specific mortality, investigating individual sociodemographic features and chronic/acute medical conditions as potential effect modifiers.
Here we present the overall estimates for each effect modifier obtained in the meta-analysis.
KEY WORDS: cause of death, cold, effect modifiers (epidemiology), heat, mortality, temperature, weather.
We also present the exposure-response curves as shaped for cities with corresponding levels of the presented effect modifier equal to the 25th and the 75th percentile of the distribution of the relevant effect modifier.
The remaining effect modification patterns were not so clear, with lines crossing over the range of the relevant effect modifier.
We then subdivided those counts by the presence or absence of the potential effect modifier and reestimated our regressions on those subgroups.
The possibility that this explains our results is reduced by our failure to find previous hospital admission for COPD was an effect modifier for the effect of particles on cardiovascular admissions.
In general, there is interest in potential effect modifiers for particulate air pollution.
Social and economic factors were extracted from the 1990 decennial Census (7) for use as potential effect modifiers.
Scientists have long known that effect modifiers
influence responses to pollutants in both negative and positive ways, as evidenced by the observation that more stimulating environments may ameliorate some of lead's cognitive effects.
What often are labeled as effect modifiers
or covariates are bound inextricably, in the individual, with the measures they are presumed to influence from the outside.
Statistical analysis of the results incorporated a comprehensive array of potential confounders and effect modifiers
, including weight, menopausal status, use of hormone replacement therapy, age at menarche, alcohol consumption, smoking history, and physical activity level.
these effects require further examination in other populations, and further research also needs to be conducted with more detailed information on personal exposures, effect modifiers
, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as birth defects and spontaneous abortion.
Are there specific risk factors or effect modifiers
for PM effects?