This shading can strongly limit occupancy by many ectothermal
insect species, which cannot remain active below a specific temperature threshold (Corbet 1990, Herrera 1995a).
Such uniformity, and in particular the relatively constant relation between age, size, and level of maturation, is present in mammals but generally is not true for organisms that develop under ectothermal
In different aquatic ectothermal
animals, it has also been reported that plasmalogens increase in response to an elevation of temperature (Yeo et al.
These fish are similar to many other ectothermal
vertebrates, in that differences in levels of maternal investment are often evident as differences in the amount of yolk invested by a female during vitellogenesis (Chambers and Leggett 1996; B.
Low ambient temperatures slow down metabolic activity at high latitudes, and there is by now ample evidence that thermal lowering metabolic rates extends life span in ectothermal
models like Caenorhabditis elegans (Van Voorhies & Ward 1999) or Drosophila melanogaster (Luckinbill 1998).