These transcription factors activate repressed pattern of gene expression like GATA binding transcription factor 4/6 (GATA4/6) and caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX), which mediate phenotypic changes toward endoderm during stem cell differentiation, and repress activated pattern of gene expression for differentiation to mesoderm and ectoderm
like T-box transcription factor 3 (TBX3) and estrogen-related receptor beta (ESRRB) (Boyer et al.
The proximo-distal sequence of origin of parts of the chick wing and on the role of the ectoderm
The limb bud originates from the migration of the mesoderm onto the overlying ectoderm
on the ventrolateral aspect of the embryo.
Breast tissue is modification of sweat glands and is derived from downward migration of ectoderm
into the underlying mesenchyme.
The histopathological examination revealed that the tumor included structures derived from all 3 germ cell layers: ectoderm
, mesoderm, and endoderm (eg, cartilaginous, osseous, hematopoietic, fibrous, nervous, glandular, squamous epithelial, and smooth muscle tissues).
There are four anatomical layers (called strata) of epidermis on the human body; they are derived from the ectoderm
For starters, the epithelial layer of these membranes contain cells that act in a similar fashion to stem cells but can be differentiated into the three embryonic germ layers that are the embryonic source of all human cells--the mesoderm, endoderm and ectoderm
Dermoids are nonneoplastic, congenital ectodermal inclusion cysts that contain varying amounts of ectoderm
derivatives to include apocrine, sweat, and sebaceous cysts as well as hair follicles, squamous epithelium, and possibly teeth.
3,18) The nasolacrimal duct develops during embryogenesis via secondary canalization from the nasolacrimal ridge that detaches from overlying nasomaxillary ectoderm
and connects as a nasolacrimal rod with the developing inferior lateral nasal wall and later superiorly with the developing conjunctival sac.
The pathogenesis of encephalocele may be explained by separation of surface ectoderm
in the midline just after closure of neural fold.
Y blastoderm fydd yn y pendraw maes o law yn datblygu i roi'r ectoderm
neu'r echgroen, yr endoderm a'r mesoderm.
Spontaneous high expression of heat-shock proteins in mouse embryonal cells and ectoderm
from day 8 mouse embryo.
Spinal lipomas, including intradural lipomas and lipomyelocoeles, result from premature separation of the neuro-ectoderm
from the cutaneous ectoderm
, allowing mesenchymal fat-forming cells to enter the spinal canal.
However, recent work suggests that neural crest cells can initiate tooth formation in either ectoderm
or endoderm (Soukup et al.
The neural crest cells emerge from the dorsal ectoderm
near the future nervous system, migrate throughout the body, and can differentiate into a number of various structures to furnish the body's periphery with many specialized functions.